Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Basal ganglia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Basal ganglia - Research Paper Example Parkinsons’s disorder is treated with dopamine replacement therapy. In the study of Diaz and Walters (2009), they explained that Parkinson is treated with levodopa, carbidopa, dopamine agonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and amantadine. All drugs are known to relive motor symptoms. L-Dopa increases the level of dopamine in the brain thereby relieves muscle tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Dopamine depletion results in the degeneration of the basal ganglia which may lead to excessive excitatory signals that affects the voluntary muscles in the different part of the body. Carbidopa prevents the breakdown of dopamine in the periphery thus causes fewer side effects. Amantadine has the same effect with L-Dopa. The study further provided an overview of other medications believe to treat non motor features of Parkinson disease like mood disorder, gastrointestinal, cognitive impairment, and autonomic dysfunction. Hilker and company (2010) in their similar study suggested that t he use of continuous dopaminergic drug delivery (CDD) may also provide a reduction in dopaminergic dyskinesias. CDD is based on the idea of continuous stimulation of striate dopamine receptors by infusing L-Dopa through a portable mini pump. While there are many researches and studies on the positive effects of these drugs on the signs and symptoms of Parkinson, medication is not the only treatment addressing this basal ganglia disorder. Understanding the underlying mechanism of the disorder had played a role in the interest of experts in expanding their search for other treatments to include surgical intervention in the form of pallidotomy and thalamotomy. These surgical procedures involve making lesions in the damaged tissues of the brain. In fact, the study of Krauss and Jankovic (1996) revealed that small lesion may disrupt the abnormal activity in the circuitry of basal ganglia. The operation involves treating the overly active brain cells thus signs and symptoms of the disease like dyskinesias, freezing movement, and stiffness are improved. In 1992, dramatic results among patients who had undergone pallidotomy were revealed (http://neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu). Treatment of basal ganglia disorder has been complicated. Treatment with drugs could cause another major symptom which is slowness in movement. Patient may still manifest the same major symptoms of the disorder despite undergoing surgery. This prompted experts to consider another option such as transplantation of fetal mesencephalic tissue. However, this treatment is still in its experimental stage. In the same study of Krauss and Jankovic, they noted that fetal stem transplantation has the potential to restore the lost nigrostriatal pathway. The stems when introduced into the substantia nigra would act as dopamine producing cells. This treatment is supported with the findings of Tran,Ho and Jandial ( 2010) where they explained that stem cells are the choice because of their ability to maintain a nd differentiate themselves and could develop into different new cells throughout the life of mammals. Furthermore, they reiterated that the preliminary use of stem cells has a therapeutic promise in treating neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by neuronal and glialloss. Other studies found out that implanted stem cells migrate to lesion site and restore deficits in brain function. The data provided in the treatment of basal

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