Sunday, April 7, 2019
Jean Piaget Essay Example for Free
Jean Piaget EssayMy own beliefs around azoic childishness development are based upon the knowledge that childrens growth is developmental. It seems very clear to me that a high quality archaeozoic childhood program must(prenominal) provide a safe and nurturing surround which promotes a broad spectrum of assume for the childs physical, social, excited, and cognitive development. I strongly agree with the tenets of the bailiwick Association for the Education of Young childrenthat high quality, development anyy get hold of programs should be available to all children (Bredekamp Rosegrant, 1992, p. 7).Children under the age of eight pick up enormous capableness for growth and achievement, and it is my belief that they have rights to fulfill their possibilities. A separate statement of the NAEYC divides the concept of appropriateness into deuce aspectsage appropriateness and individual appropriateness (Bredekamp, 1987, p. 2). This statement coincides with my belief that children are unique individuals who whitethorn or may non reflect the usual characteristics of former(a) children of their same age. Further more(prenominal), I look at that a developmentally appropriate curriculum for schoolgirlish children is correctly tailored to the specifics of each age conclave.Different ages have different needs, interests, and developmental tasks, and the curriculum should reflect those variations. The about utile early childhood curriculum offers creative expression, social and emotional interaction, child-adult communication, child-child communication, physical expression, knowledge acquisition, reasoning practice, risk-taking, and personal autonomy. Early childhood learning happens through conform to. In this case, play is a serious matter, although it is quite fun to all involved.Children learn by doing and briskly participating. When given the hazard to explore, children flourish. They experiment, make choices, achieve strength and a sense of belonging as an effective individual at heart the context of a supportive, safe multitude. It is my belief that early childhood learning must happen in an integrated manner. Children of this age are too four-year-old for rigidly separated subject matter, and the skillful instructor of young children easily integrates the physical, emotional, social, creative, and cognitive areas of early learning.Role of Child as a Learner Johann Pestalozzi and Froebel, cardinal of the earliest professionals in early childhood development, championed the development of the quality of early childhood theory and practice. Pestalozzi contended that young children learn most effectively by doing, by playing, and by interacting with the environmentthe physical world and other children (McCarthy Houston, 1980, p. 4).Early, effective learning happens best in a mixed age group, multi-cultural settings,Froebel, like Pestalozzi, believed that play is of paramount richness in the development of the chi ld, and that the emotional quality of the childs bread and butter (relationship with parents and other significant people) profoundly permeates the quality of the childs support (McCarthy Houston, 1980, p. 6).Pestalozzi did not particularly formalize his theories and methods, but he had a very good intuitive hang in of the necessity for language development, nurturing environments, and healthy relationships for children as a springboard for optimum learning.The child as a learner has cognitive needs, and these vary according to the age of the child. Piaget became famous for his work in the cognitive domain, and his guidelines of pre-operational imagination to more sophisticated abstract thinking are useful for teachers who wish to be careful about not expecting too much from children who are operating at a lower cognitive direct (DeVries Kohlberg, 1987, p. 54). His work was rather theoretical, and others (principally Kamii and DeVries) have expanded Piagets theory to widen it s concrete usefulness in early childhood classrooms.The young child learns from the motivation of a need to know, and most early learning takes tail end in the context of the home and relationship with parents and other family members. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky, one of the earliest workers in the area of developmental psychology and psychopathology, believed that childrens learning happens within the framework of the childs activities and is enormously influenced by the society and values of the persons near the child.The built-in field of child development then consists of an endless stream of dialectical conflicts and blockages, with the resolutions then internalized to form the childs increasingly sophisticated physical and psychological knowledge (Thomas, 1992, p. 322). John Deweys progressive teaching method movement greatly affected thinking and practice for teachers desiring to arrange an appropriate environment for young learners. Dewey was one of the most influential e ducational philosophers in the United States in the early 1900s and his influence is still felt in the 1990s (McCarthy Houston, 1980, p.6).Dewey and other forward-thinking professionals of his time believed that learning should be based upon the childrens interests and that children should be actively involved in their education. Before Deweys time, most classroom activity consisted of teachers instructing passive, obedient listeners. Deweys work provided a solid philosophical basis for early childhood educators who desire to integrate subject matter into whatever the children are actively involved with at the moment.Dewey contended that whatever kind of life experience is valuable for learning. Dewey was worldistic in his orientation, and his work spoke to the importance of human interest, value, and dignity (McCarthy Houston, 1980, p. 8). Abraham Maslow was one of the first psychologists to emphasize the importance of mixed needs being met before other, higher(prenominal) need s come into focus. He placed the physical needs at the bottom of his needs hierarchy, followed by the need for love and belonging.Physically, children at young ages grow and change dramatically from year to year, and the alert, educated teacher will firmly grasp the necessity of a balanced program of large muscle activity, teentsy muscle play, outdoor opportunities for expression of vigorous excess energy, and small motor expressive activity (Bredekamp, 1987, p. 56). Psychologically, children must feel safe before they are able to explore and learn. Children learn through social interaction with adults and other children, and their learning begins with awareness, moving through cycles of exploration, questioning, and application.Vygotsky viewed each childs learning in terms of that childs own ontogenetic development. Each experience of the child comes about as a result of the childs prior experiences of problem-solving and problem resolution (Thomas, 1992, p. 323). Mitchell, a stud ent of John Dewey, also emphasized the necessity of learning within the context of the group. She believed that education for a democratic society begins at a very young age and she placed great importance on young children learning to cooperate and operate within a group (McCarthy Houston, 1980, p. 9).Carl Jung did a great deal of research and writing in the areas of variation of personality types, and his concepts lead us to believe that some individuals do their best work completely alone, even at a very young age. Carl Rogers also wrote about the importance of the individual contemplative experience. Like Maslow, Rogers as a humanistic psychologist believed in the importance of the human, individual aspect of learning. He saw learning as a change in self-organization. These learnings may be threatening and happen best in a psychologically safe, supportive environment (Rogers, 1969, p.159). Although Rogers work primarily applied to the therapeutic counseling situation, it has gr eat application to anyone dedicated to helpering others learn more about themselves. Role of the Teacher in the Learning Process Carl Rogers also had definite views on the temperament of learning and the role of the teacher. He said that people learn by doing and by activities which involve the self-colored person (Rogers, 1969, p. 162). He contended that the most useful learning is the learning of the process of learning so that practical problems of living in a changing society may find successful solutions.According to Rogers and others who have followed similar philosophies, teachers are guides and facilitators. They set a creative, stimulating, supportive environment which enhances the childs natural curiosity about life around him. The astute early childhood educator provides a variety of activities, objects, events, materials and people which will assist the children in channelling their innate drive to learn. The best teachers are current in the understandings of fads and characters that appeal to young childrentelevision shows, preferent foods, clothing, and stories that are modern.Young children tune out adults who simply do not understand current culture. In this way, responsible teachers bring multicultural awareness into the classroom as well as information and materials relevant to their own ethnic background. Mixed classrooms provide an excellent opportunity to teach trust, respect, pride, appreciation of differences, and investly group problem-solving (McCracken, 1993, p. 55). The teacher sets the tone for self acceptance and the acceptance of others.The effective early childhood teacher is an active learner, regardless of her own age, and this type of professional engages children in active participation with materials that are genuinely raise to the children. This type of adult extends the childs learning with skillful questioning and acceptance of error through experimentation. The well-versed teacher understands the various levels of cognitive learning, Piagets theories, and Blooms Taxonomy so that children are guided and encouraged, but never forced into an intellectual level that is not appropriate.Responsible early childhood teachers respect the individual styles of the students at all times, as well as the various cultures from which they originate. The emotional tone in the best early childhood environments is one of warmth, high self-esteem, and safety. originative expression is welcomed, even if the forms prove to be highly unusual. Mitchell advocated creative expression of the whole child, through conversation, art, music, dance, and story-telling (McCarthy Houston, 1980, p. 9). concerted learning and family involvement provide rich resources for respect among individuals and groups of a variety of different cultures.Skillful teachers in multicultural settings will recognize those values which must be basic (respect for the human body and rules for group interaction) and encourage the expression of th e varieties and nuances specific to the individual ethnic group (McCracken, 1993, p. 65). Role of Peers in Learning The National Association for the Education of Young Children strongly advocates the guidance of social-emotional development in the classroom. Teachers have the responsibility for overbearing modeling, encouraging expected behavior, redirecting inappropriate actions, and setting clear limits.With this type of skilled teaching, children learn the social skills of cooperation, helping, negotiation, and communicatory communication. In order for these important social skills to happen, teachers must depart from the traditional modes of instructing, placing children at individual desks, and pass a great deal of time as referee or punisher (Bredekamp, 1987, p. 55). CLASSROOM PRACTICES It is evident from the introductory writing that effective teaching requires the logical, ethical translation of teaching philosophy into classroom implementation.Most importantly, all acti vities for young children must be developmentally appropriate to the age (Bredekamp Rosegrant, 1992). This is true across the board in every subject matter and in every aspect of the childs beingphysical, emotional, social, cognitive, and spiritual. SUMMARY/CONCLUSION In order to be an effective early childhood teacher, I must know my own philosophy, limitations, prejudices, and strengths. In general, I prefer five-year olds, and honestly, I am more comfortable with students of this age who are from my own cultural background.I lean philosophically towards the concepts of Pestalozzi and Froebel as well as the humanistic psychologists who followed in this country. Most of all I strive to provide age-appropriate materials and experiences for the children. References Bredekamp, S. (1987). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from ingest through age 8. Washington, D. C. NAEYC. Bredekamp, S. , Rosegrant, T. (Editors) (1992). Reaching poten tials Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children, Volume 1. Washington, D. C. NAEYC. DeVries, R. , Kohlberg, L. (1987). Constructivism early education Overview and comparison with other programs Washington, D. C. NAEYC. McCarthy, M. , Houston, J. (1980). Fundamentals of early childhood education. Cambridge, Massachusetts Winthrop Publishers. McCracken, J. B. (1993). Valuing diversity The primary years. Washington, D. C. NAEYC. Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, Ohio Merrill. Thomas, R. M. (1992). compare theories of child development, Third Edition. Belmont, California Wadsworth Publishing Company.