Thursday, November 14, 2013

Gallienus

Honors World annals10/24/08Con live roguePage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Content PagePage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IntroductionPage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Birth/Death Date, Family,Early Life, Rise to powerPage 3-5 . . . . . . . . . . ??Summary of his prevail: major events, major accomplishments, ` major problemsPage 4-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . End of his reign and how it endedPage 5-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . military rating of his reignPublius Licinius Valerianus Egnatius G whole(prenominal)ienus, or G exclusivelyienus, was innate(p) in the year 218 A.D. His find, Publius Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian was a illustrious and bulky general in capital of Italy?s array beginning approximately 253 A.D. All fib presented by G whollyienus concerning Valerian is presented in an extremely fragmentary manner, which denotes a precise negatively prejudice view by Gallienus toward his father. Little is know about Valerian n otwithstanding that he served as part of the Senate, was a not bad(p) general, and served as the emperor butterfly of Rome for a plosive speech sound. History as well tells that Valerian marital Mariniana and that a son, Gallienus, was born to them. Gallienus was very fond of Greek horticulture and besides was wise in attempting to preserve as very much of papistical business relationship as possible. Otherwise, Rome would not gather in been price the fight. During his reign, Gallienus trave lead to Attica in Greece and was initiated into the mystery cult of Eleusis. History at this term is marked by the inability of some(prenominal) popish emperor to maintain a strong chain on the Roman Imperium. Gallienus was an exception to this rule due to his great successes as Augustus, the third-year emperor next to his father Valerian. Gallienus was au thustic as Augustus at an early age. Augustus in Latin subject matter ?the increaser,? ?venerable,? or ?majestic.? V alerian decided that it was important for hi! m to share power every pussy with his son and placed Gallienus in charge of the entire westbound portion of the Roman Empire. This allowed for an extremely flexible rule all everywhere Rome. Gallienus? reign was angiotensin-converting enzyme of constant defense from usurpation of unusual populates. Gallienus seldom had any time to himself as he was continuously argue remote regions of his empire or suppressing frequent rebellions all over his imperium. In the early years of his joint reign with his father, Gallienus think on suppressing small invasions and the breakout of riots in conquered areas. Whenever a in the altogether person came into power over the Roman Empire, arse breakouts and rioting among the conquered community followed. These uprising had to be suppressed send on anything else could be done. Gallienus dealt with defending the extremities of his portion of the empire from invasion of grim tribes and power hungry nations in the very beginni ng of his reign. Gallienus had harbour down many of these rebellions by the year 260 A.D. and escortd security by making an alliance with the Marcomannic king whose daughter, Pipa, he took as a concubine even though he was married to Cornelia Salonia. In 257 A.D., Valerian rescued Antioch from Iranian control, but only temporarily. In 259 A.D., ulterior on renewed Persian attacks, Valerian attempted to make cessation with the Persian queen Saphor. Saphor would not stand for this and captured Valerian through treachery. Valerian was then greatly humiliated by Saphor, who used him as a merciful mounting block for the king?s horse. Valerian was later(prenominal) skin to make a more lasting trophy of King Saphor?s cunning. This ended the life of Valerian. Through all of this, Gallienus does not seem to care that his father has died and seems not to recover that his father never returned from Persia. Gallienus simply stepped in to the role of encompassing emperor of th e Roman Empire without a second thought. besides v! irtually this time, Gallienus began to separate the civil and military functions of Rome?s idyll governors by making them into lowly civil administrators. Gallienus? of import bearing of reinforcing his position as emperor is seen through the coins during this time. The coins from this period see evidence of a successful propaganda campaign in a time thousands of years before television or newspapers. umpteen of the Roman mints in this time produced coins portrayal soldiers and the gist ?FIDES MILITVM? or ? subjection of soldiers? de scandalize constant rebellion of armies against Gallienus. Gallienus went to great measures to ensure that he was depicted as victorious, merciful, and pious. In addition, Gallienus introduced a new coin series to the general public depicting his enactment disguised as some(prenominal) of the Greek deities. Roman people who used these coins every day were constantly reminded of their Greek hereditary pattern and therefore remained loyal to the Emperor. During Gallienus? reign, there was constant fighting on the western frontier of the Roman Empire. By the year 260 A.D., Gallienus had at sea complete control of Gaul. In the traditional fashion, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the multitude and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium. In the months leading up to his mystic dying in September of 268 A.D., Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the nation of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, tour at the same time, the Alamanni were a creating a ruckus in the Yankee part of Italy. Gallienus halted the progress of the Alamanni by defeating them in skirmish in 268 A.D., and then he turned north and won several victories over the Huns. That fall, he attacked the Goths once again. In September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to advantage at the Battle of Naissus. At some time follow ers this battle, Gallienus authority was challenged b! y Aureolus, commanding officer of the celestial sphere army in Milan, who supported Postumus. Gallienus moved to lay dun to Mediolanum, but during the siege he was murdered. He died in 268 A.D. thither are divergent accounts of his murder.
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According to the Historia capital of Maine, an unreliable denotation compiled long by and by the events it describes, a conspiracy was led by the commander of the guard Aurelianus Heraclianus and Marcianus. Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians, spread the sound out that Aureolus was leaving the city and Gallienus left his tent without his bodyguard, only to be struck down by Cecropius (Historia Augusta - Gallieni, xiv.4-11). One rendition has Claudius selected as emperor by the conspirators, some other elect by Gallienus on his death bed. The Historia Augusta was inte anticipateed to plump for the descent of the Constantinian dynasty from Claudius, and this may explain its accounts, which do not come to Claudius in the murder. The other sources, (Zosimus and Zonaras), report that the conspiracy was unionised by Heracles, Claudius, and Aurelian. As a final act of spite against Gallienus, the Roman Senate defied Gallienus a proper burial in one of the flesh out Roman mausoleums. The Senate ordered Gallienus? body to be located to rest in a tomb nine miles south to the highest stratum of Rome on the Via Appia. Gallienus wife, Cornelia Salonina, bore Gallienus three sons: Valerianus, Saloninus, and Egnatius Marinianus. Valerianus died in 258 A.D. Salonius died subsequently enough co-emperor. He was killed by his tutor, Posthmus. Egnatius Marinianus became a consul in 268 A.D. Cl! audius spared the lives of Gallienus family and estate his predecessor defied. Gallienus, in large part, has been passed over by historians. break off of this is due to Gaul?s secession and the fact that Gallienus was trifling to reconquer it. Recently, Gallienus has begun to be seen in a more cocksure light. He was the creator of some very useful reforms. His closely prominent contribution to military history was the creation of a cavalry only unit of the army, which could be dispatched quickly without all of the usual red tape involved in trigger the army. This set an example followed by future emperors Diocletian and Constantine I. Gallienus also forbade Senators from change state military commanders. This greatly undermined the Senate?s power as equestrian commanders rose to prominence. These reforms not only helped Aurelian to salvage the empire, but also placed Gallienus in the league of the Roman Dominate on with Septimius Severus, Dicletian, and Constantine I. Gallienus was one of the last rulers to be called ?First Citizen.? His self promotional material laid the foundation for the emperors who would be addressed as ? maestro and God.?Works Cited1.Author Unknown. Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus. Roman-empire.net. Date published unknown. 25 Oct. 2008 . 2.Gallieni. Historia Augusta. Chapter xiv. Page 4-11. 3.Wiegel, Richard D. Gallienus. Roman-emperors.org. 3 Aug. 1998. Western Kentucky University. 25 Oct. 2008 . If you want to get a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com

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